Social and Economic Status: Class and Occupation
Links to an interesting, and rare, collection of sites to do
with female employment/occupations. From Spartacus. Outlines and
Woman, Economic Instability and Poverty a study by Ann Marie
Huysman (1998), exploring the relationship between gender and
poverty. This article is posted as an
example of a very good student term paper
The Plight of Women's Work Early Industrial Revolution in
England and Wales Part of the Classroom lesson series from
womeninworldhistory. Concise but with good witness support -
includes testimony to Parliamentary commissions, illustrations,
Women's Work By Professor Pat Hudson who argues that
sometimes the earning power of women contributed to their
independence and to their profile in the public arena, but most
often it merely added to their already heavy domestic burdens.
Women Miners in the English Coal Pits
An 1842 Parliamentary Paper describing women's work in the coal
mines of Yorkshire. Includes testimony of two women miners. From
Modern History Source Book
Match Girls BBC audio report (about
10mins) "Pale, thin, undersized" and "ragged", the match girls
were unlikely heroines of labour militancy. In 1888, a
group of women workers went on strike and sparked the birth of
the modern trade union movement.
Greenwich Time Lady BBC audio report
(about 10mins). In 1892 Ruth Belville took over the role
of the Greenwich Time Lady from her mother. Each week she would
visit the Royal Observatory with her Arnold chronometer to have
it checked and would then go to businesses around London so they
could set their clocks. Kristen Lippincott and David Rooney from
the Royal Observatory talk about The Greenwich Time Lady – her
life and how, despite opposition, she managed to continue her
service into the 1930s.
The Position in the United States of America
Women and Work in Early America
From the late colonial period through the American Revolution,
women's work usually centred on the home, but romanticizing this
role as the Domestic Sphere came in the early 19th century. An
Jone Johnson Lewis, Women's History Guide
Women in America: Occupations
Travellers to America in 1820-1842 describe women's occupations,
providing insight into the status and roles of women.
Women and Finance in the Early National U.S.
An extensive survey by Robert E. Wright, U. of Virginia, on
women as business owners, loan recipients, investors or
otherwise involved in financial issues and the workforce in the
United States in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Woman's right to labor, or, Low wages and hard work
Caroline Wells Healey Dall's 1859 lectures
on women and work. Graphic original facsimile format for the
pages. Requires patience to load!
Hearth A novel site with much of
domestic interest . This is a core electronic collection of
books and journals in Home Economics and related disciplines.
Titles published between 1850 and 1950 were selected and ranked
by teams of scholars for their great historical importance. The
first phase of this project focused on books published between
1850 and 1925 and a small number of journals.
Early Political Emancipation
3. African-American Women in the USA
Two useful sites with many links from History about.com:
Notable Women in Black History A good place to start,
biographies and links to many sites on African American women's
African American Women's History Links to
sites and articles on the history of black women in America,
from slavery through Reconstruction, Harlem Renaissance and
civil rights. Biographies, organizations, events and
Multi-Racial Movement in the Baltimore YWCA 1883-1926 YWCAs
developed to address problems of working class women in large
cities. This site shows, through an overview with accompanying
source documents, how the YWCA in one city, Baltimore, worked to
address such issues across racial lines.
Admissions 1860-1920 This site focuses on the history of
higher education for African American women. §
The black woman of the South : her neglects and her needs by
Dr Alexander Crummell. Crummell, pastor of St. Luke's
Episcopal Church in Washington, DC, from 1879-1898, spoke out
for black liberation, and founded the Negro Academy. This speech
focuses on the status of African American women in slavery,
which Crummell says was worse than for men because women were
more isolated. To improve the lot of black women within the
present generation, Crummell proposes that "sisterhoods" be sent
into the rural South to train and teach black women and that
industrial schools be established for them in the South as well.
Slavery Click to go to young casahistoria
Mary Fields in Montana Story of the life of "Black Mary,"
African American ex-slave who settled in Montana after the Civil
War and earned the respect and devotion of most of the residents
of the pioneer community of Cascade, Montana, before she died in
1914. By George Everett for Wild West Magazine
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Left Legacy Worth Celebrating
Once you can find this article amongst the many ads, read about
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper who represented many causes and
constituencies during an 85-year life. She was an activist for
black empowerment, voting rights, feminism, spirituality, plus
moral and ethical living. §
Johnson Harris Elizabeth Harris was born in Augusta,
Georgia, in 1867, to parents who had been slaves. She married
Jacob Walker Harris in 1883 at the age of 15 and was the mother
of nine children. She lived until 1942, surviving her husband
and two of her children. She was a deeply religious woman who
spent much of her life in service to her church. She clearly
valued education, both for herself and her children. She had
several of her poems and vignettes published in various
newspapers during her lifetime. She included these in the
manuscript of her life story, which she started writing at the
age of 55 in 1923. This is the scanned writings of Harris, here
in both images and text. They give insight into the life of an
African American woman in the late 19th - early 20th century.
Charlotte Ray (1850-1911) First African American woman
lawyer in the US and first woman admitted to the bar in the
District of Columbia. An about.com profile.
Susan Baker King Taylor: Reminiscences of Life with the 33d
An article by Kimberly J. Largent about Susan Baker King Taylor
who was secretly schooled in her young years, who became a
laundress while her husband enlisted in the Union army. She also
served as a nurse, cleaned guns, and generally helped with the
"colored" regiment's business, short of actual fighting.
Sojourner Truth from About Guide to Women's History. Concise
bio with many links to other sites.
Harriet Tubman, Moses of Her People Fugitive slave,
Underground Railroad conductor, Civil War nurse and soldier,
women's rights advocate and social reformer An four-part
in-depth biography by
Johnson Lewis, Women's History Guide. See also:
4. 19th century men on
John James Audubon and
Charles Dickens Their (separate)
observations of women in America in the early 19th century
(1808-1826). Useful excerpts from their writings.
Channing and Others, by Fuller
Margaret Fuller, in Woman in the Nineteenth Century, writes of
male voices who, in her view, were supportive of women. The
essay is a reproduction, modified and expanded, of an article
published in "The Dial," Boston, July, 1843, under the title of
"The Great Lawsuit.--Man versus Men ; Woman versus Women."
This article excited a good deal of sympathy, and still more
Who Was Frederick Douglass?
Useful intro from US digital History. See also:
Hegel: Feminist Critique
Antoinette M. Stafford's article on Hegel's views on women and
Jefferson and His Daughters The
story of Thomas Jefferson's relationship with his daughters
illustrates 19th century American attitudes towards and
education of women.
Mill: On the Subjection of Women Classic
essay by John Stuart Mill (1869) in support of women's rights.
here for Notes to help with the essay by
Mark Twain: "The Ladies" An 1872 humorous speech by Mark
Twain looking at women in history...
Ezra H Heywood: Uncivil Liberty (1873): "An Essay
to Show the Injustice and Impolicy of Ruling Woman Without Her
Consent." Heywood attacks the legal inequality in the US
of men over women.
General Sites to Women's History
6. Researching Women's History
Women's Library (previously Genesis) is
a mapping initiative, funded by the UK Research Support
Libraries Programme to identify and develop access to women's
history sources in the British Isles. The database holds
descriptions of women's history collections from libraries,
archives and museums from around the British Isles. Search the database by using
the search box on the opening
Discussion Group Scholarly discussion to communicate current
research and teaching interests, to test new ideas and to share
comments on current historiography.
WWW Virtual Library of Women's History This virtual library
contains a very comprehensive list of women's history in
institutions and organizations
Library Collections Library collections of original sources
(letters, diaries, papers, etc.) on the topic of women's
history. From about.com
Pictures, Photographs, Portraits and Posters Women's history
in images from about.com Includes several specialized
Documents of Women's History A growing library of documents
for studying women's history. Speeches, articles, biographies,
stories and more
Etexts and Women's History: about.com Where to find etexts
on women's history on the Net.
- Women and
Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000 Very
extensive range of documents. Each category of documents begins
with a useful thematic essay. About a third of the document
projects on Women and Social Movements are freely available on
the web. This is well worth searching through.
Other Women's Voices Interesting site that takes you to
passages from over 125 women writers. The entries are on women
who produced a substantial amount of work before 1700, some or
all of which has been translated into modern English. Each entry
tells you about the print sources from which the translated
passages are taken; it also tells you of useful secondary
sources and Internet sites
The Girl's Own Paper, 1880-1941
This site contains an index of all the fiction stories and
non-fiction articles from the Girl's Own Paper covering the
period 1880 to 1941 (Volumes 1 to 62). The index was compiled by
the casahistoria Women's History sub-sites:
Early Women's history: Pre
Women's History | Medieval Women |
17th & 18th century | Witches and
19c - Industrialisation &
(a) Great Britain: Social position | Work
| Emancipation movements
(b) USA: Work | Emancipation movements |
Suffrage Movement in Gt Britain
Suffrage Movement in the USA
Women in Totalitarian States:
Fascist Italy |
20th century: the impact
Women & Modern War |
Women in Art & Science |
Women in the Developing World | Women's
Issues | Girls and Education