Valuable sites in English on Mussolini are limited, this site
indicates the more useful.
of left & right: Comparison of the ideologies of left
and right that were fundamental to the growth of the ideas
Fascism A clear and concise account of the origins and
development of Fascism by Dr C Jazwinski.
- The original site is now dead. This is a copy.
is Fascism Some General Ideological Features by Matthew N.
Lyons, an independent scholar and freelance writer who studies
reactionary and supremacist movements.
Fascism in Europe: Documents and articles Excellent
selection from the Mosaic Perspectives on western civilisation
14 Features of Fascism as defined by Umberto Eco set out
very clearly in a table form with edited examples of modern
examples of fascism. §
- 'The Anatomy
of Fascism' By Zeev Sternhell, Reply by Adrian Lyttelton
from New York Review of Books
A Reader's Guide Edited by Walter Laqueur. This is the
extract by Zeev Sternhell, Colorado College from Laqueur.
Academic survey of the movement. §
The nature of fascism Roger Griffin attempts to define
"generic fascism - the term he uses for those characteristics
which are found in all fascist movements and ideologies, from
Mussolini's Fascist Party to contemporary neo-fascist
organizations. This is the Google book version. Some pages are
left out but enough are here to make it valuable for
functions of fascism. (Download link is at the bottom of the
page). Podcast lecture by Michel Parenti who argues that fascism
is a new order and consciousness that served the same old power
structure and promised to solve the ills of the many while
protecting the interests of the few. He answers in detail who
financed the Fascist parties and what services the fascists
rendered in return. Podcast by
a-Infos Radio project
Economic Fascism Looks at the broader global appeal of
fascism in the inter war period - especially to industrialists.
By Thomas J. DiLorenzo, Professor of Economics at Loyola College
Race and Visualism Interesting look at impact of fascism
(and other influences) on how society has visualised itself. By
William Washabaugh §
Political Compass Provides a 3D (or even 4D?) take on the
usual left-right interpretations of political ideology.
Click on this site to see the Italian revolutionary Art that
influenced young Mussolini. Clearly presented. A good place to
start. Do not select the full screen option...... A committed,
but interesting arts site on the movement. From the introduction
to the site: Futurism was an international art movement founded
in Italy in 1909. It was (and is) a refreshing contrast to the
weepy sentimentalism of Romanticism. The Futurists loved speed,
noise, machines, pollution, and cities; they embraced the
exciting new world that was then upon them rather than
hypocritically enjoying the modern world’s comforts while loudly
denouncing the forces that made them possible. Fearing and
attacking technology has become almost second nature to many
people today; the Futurist manifestos show us an alternative
philosophy. Too bad they were all Fascists....
Modernism Web site of the V&A exhibition in London (May-July
'06) the V&A. Very useful site bringing together a mass of
exhibits, drawings and photos it looks at the development of the
movement in the interwar period. The focus is rightly on
developments in central & eastern Europe and index can be
centred on countries individually.
Biographies of Mussolini
Biographies (and the many YouTube clips) of Mussolini on the
web are, if anything, even more subjective than those on Lenin,
Stalin, Castro and Che. The following are amongst the most useful.
Use others with care to note any bias.
Mussolini, family man....
Power-mad Mussolini sacrificed wife and son 2007 Article
from The Guardian by John Hooper about how Mussolini treated his
first wife Ida Dalser, and their son Benito Albino
Lady of the Axis 1939 Time article about the ambitious
influence of Mussolini's eldest daughter, Edda, wife of Count
Margherita Sarfatti - The Jewish mother of Fascism Detailed
article about Mussolini's first mistress. Sarfatti wrote art
criticism when Benito Mussolini was appointed editor of the
socialist journal Avanti in 1912. This is the story of their
relationship told following an interview with her granddaughter.
By Saviona Mane.
Petacci Basic details on Mussolini's mistress from NNDB
Sex Diaries Reveal Mussolini's Soft Side Mussolini's
mistress, Clara Petacci, recorded intimate details of her affair
with Il Duce in her journal. Her diary reveals Mussolini as a
sex-addicted anti-Semite who found Hitler "very likeable"- and
who occasionally suffered from impotence. By Alexander
Smoltczyk, Spiegel Online
Ida Dalser - tragic wife of Mussolini Article on the first
wife of Mussolini who he then disowned and hounded along with
Mussolini 'had affair with Italy's last queen' 2011 Guardian
article describes a newly found letter from his son emerges
claiming dictator slept with Marie-José, wife of heir to the
3. Rise to power
Italy - The Fascist State
Life in Italy
Women and the family
Totalitarian Life Under Fascism - Fry Collection Exhibit.
Excellent site with a difference. Set out like museum exhibits,
the University of Wisconsin-Madison's archive of printed items
relates to the fascist movement in Italy from 1922-1945. It
includes information and digital reproductions of original
documents exploring the nature of Italian fascism covering
political, educational, social, and racial policies. Main
Fascism in Italy: The F word detailed review article
from the Economist, 2005, looking at Richard Bosworth's
“Mussolini's Italy” - an attempt to outline the impact of
fascism upon Italian society. Well worth reading. Now
subscription but 14 day free access available on the page.
The Patron State: Culture & Politics in Fascist Italy, by
Maria Susan Stone. Useful review article by C Bertrand.
Control & Propaganda
Arturo Bocchini and the secret political police in fascist
Italy. Detailed article from: The Historian, 1998 by Italo G
Rival's: The Limits of the Personality Cult in Fascist Italy,
The Cult of the Duce’ - the cultivation of Mussolini’s image as
the leader and ruler of Fascist Italy - was a very complex
phenomenon. It also differed in some very important ways from
the leadership cults in two other totalitarian states between
the wars, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. But the most
serious difference was that Mussolini had rivals, representing
influential, non-Fascist forces in Italian society. Eventually,
these rivals eclipsed Mussolini in popularity among the Italian
people. John Pollard article (1998)in New Perspective.
- From the
Fry Collection of the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Mussolini and Propaganda Basic article shows how mussolini
initiated an extensive propaganda campaign designed to merge his
personage with Italy itself. He used economics, education,
foreign policy, and a cult of personality to achieve this end.
Don Keko, examiner.com
Economic Fascism Examines the economic policy component of
fascism, known in Europe during the 1920s and '30s as
"corporatism," that was an essential ingredient of economic
totalitarianism as practiced by Mussolini and Hitler by Thomas
J. DiLorenzo, Professor of Economics at Loyola College
The Economic System of Corporatism Straightforward
introductory account of corporatism as an economic interwar
movement from San Jose Univ.
Mussolini's Corporatism Basically a 2008 political attack by
L. Wolfe on New York Mayor, Bloomberg, this nonetheless has much
of value on the background and nature of Mussolini’s corporatism
for a careful user.
- The Vampire
Economy: Italy, Germany, and the US Essay looking at the
economics of fascism and how they compared with policies in nazi
Germany and the US. Use sparingly, the later US section is very
opinionated. By Jeffrey M. Herbener
- Anarchist resistance to fascism. a selection of useful items
from Anarchist websites:
Racial Theories in Fascist Italy By Aaron Gillette (2002).
Google Book extracts. This is the first book to examine in
detail the debates over racial theory in fascist Italy between
the academic and scientific communities, and among the fascist
leadership itself. Gillette analyzes the shifting official
policies on race that resulted from the influence of Nazi
Germany, prominent fascists and scientists and Mussolini himself
on racist theory.
The Italian Holocaust: The Story of an Assimilated Jewish
Community Detailed article looks at the historic background
to fascist anti-semitism as well as outcomes. By Peter Egill
Brownfeld, 2003, The American Council For Judaism.
The racial question From the
Fry Collection of the University of Wisconsin-Madison
6. Comparisons with other totalitarian
7. The end