See these casahistoria sites for further background:
2. The Political Background
Early 20th century:
3. Internal Conflict & Expansion
- From Armed
Conflict Events Data site:
Conquest of the
Conquest of the Desert Overview piece to provide a starter.
Two chapters from the useful History of Argentine Foreign Policy
by the Univ of CEMA, Buenos Aires:
Nicolás Avellaneda (1837 - 1885) Outline bio of the Conquest
President by Felipe Pigna
Genocidios (Genocide) Article by Luis Bruschtein in
Pagina/12. Argues that the expansion of Roca was a genocide,
despite recent attempts to praise the work of Roca. However is
perhaps a little harsh on Argentina - the lethal expansion was
part of the contemporary European template for expansion and
white Argentina was "just" playing its part in this.....
Ceferino Namuncurá Article about the beatification of a
chieftain's son killed whilst serving in the Argentine Army
under Roca in the notorious Wars against the indigenous tribes.
Draws paralleles with the RC's church support for Roca's
repression and the repression of the military junta 100 years
Aboriginal victims of Argentina's 'silent genocide' By
Andres Schipani in Chaco's Villa Rio Bermejito. 2007 article
from The Independent on continuing persecution of Argentina's
La Guerra del Desierto
(War of the Desert), different views Unorthodox presentation
but worth a look at by Juan José Cresto, Osvaldo Bayer and
El primer triunfo (The first triumph) It is not only in
eastern Europe where street names are being changed as history
is revised. This article draws attention to the changing of (one
of the hundreds) of streets named after "Remington" Roca of the
War of the Desert. Based around a loose review (by Osvaldo
Bayer) of a newly released biography of Roca by General Alfredo
Manuel Arrillaga the article also illustrates the problems when
revising history, especially where national icons are concerned.
Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872-1896
Valuable and well illustrated piece looks at the attitudes
towards the Conqest as reflected in argentine contemporary
writing. Jens Andermann, Birkbeck College
4. Foreign Policy
5. Economics & Prosperity
The Triple Alliance War, 1864-70
The Shatterbelts of the Americas By Phil Kelly y Luisa Pérez
An interesting article based on the shatterbelt concept: ie an
area where Great Powers compete because they perceive a strong
interest for doing so and because opportunities are present for
gaining alliance footholds with states of the region.
Shatterbelt discussed include: Amazonian,- Banda Oriental, Cuba,
South Atlantic. From HTS
Foreign policy of emerging Argentina: Thorough, detailed
description of the period from the Argentine
Universidad del CEMA educational site. Translates reasonably
well using Google. Relevant chapters:
World War 1
The Triple Alliance War, 1864-1870 Straightforward account
The Triple Alliance War, 1864-70 Conflict that put
the Argentina Confederation, Brazilian Empire and Uruguay up
against the Republic of Paraguay. The (somewhat confused) site
tells the story and has sections on related military
developments in the southern cone. At times it needs patience to
use. Also: turn off the music!
War I For further links to the war in
general go to this young casahistoria site.
“Is Imperialism Good
for Growth?”: informal empire and Latin America - re-thinking
the debate’ A paper which reflects on the implications of
the imperialism of free trade and business imperialism, paying
particular attention to the Argentinian case. By Colin M. Lewis,
Argentina and the United States: Trade, 1914-45 By
Donald J.Mabry in the HTS. Sound account and bibliography.
Esplendor y Ocaso de La Emilia
Industrias Textiles S.A. Lengthy academic article by
Prof. R Dario Primo
Industriels Basic (but illustrated) French
account of the pampa development - in French.
influence in the Argentine Economy
into Argentina Go to this casahistoria site for links to
the causes, issues and contexts surrounding European
emigration to Argentina.
African - Argentines
era Buenos Aires hace 100 años? Series of images showing
Buenos Aires in 1903 and in 2003. Interesting.
The Yellow Fever Outbreak of 1871 Documentary chronicle of
the epidemic that broke out in early 1871 in Buenos Aires,Graeme
Wall & Jeremy Howat
Vida cotidiana de la Oligarquía Argentina (Life of the
Argentine Oligarchy). Essay on the lifestyle characteristics of
the so-called "generación del ‘80" (Generation of the 80's) by
Argentina from a British Point of View - notes on Argentine Life
Gutenberg project. Very useful. This is the complete book, as
edited & published in 1910 by CP Ogilvie. Tells the story in
depth - estancia life, city life of the Anglo families, climate,
entertainment, travel, life in the army. Well indexed and
supported with photos, charts and figures. A real gem!
Tango never dies Fashions come and go, in dress, in
music, in dance. Some of them only for months, others for years.
Very few become timeless. Tango has. Sylvia Boerner follows its
journey through time from the barrios of Buenos Aires more than
a century ago to the present and explains how its various styles
came about. §
Tango Argentino: A History Useful site on the social history of
the tango at the turn of the 20th century
Climbing Though the Clouds in South America Railroad
history. The way it was in 1935. A good diversion
The Last Days of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid Unlike
in the movie their initial destination was actually Argentina.
This tells how they settled in the Chubut Territory, a frontier
zone in southern Argentina sparsely populated by immigrants,
pioneers and Indians.
Anne Meadows and Daniel Buck
Historia del Cine Argentino History of the Argentine cinema
industry from the El Sur del Sur site. Another good diversion...
Also available now in
- Nobel prizewinners. These Argentines are from the Nobel
Los Negros en la Revolucion de Mayo Concise article on the
role of the African Argentines in the army of San Martin. Based
on statement in 2001 by Congress Deputy Lorenzo Pepe
Los olvidados de la
revolución: el Rio de la Plata y sus negros (Forgotten
actors of the revolution: the Rio de la Plata and Its Blacks)
Useful & well referenced article by Carmen Bernand about the
role of afro-Argentines in the independence struggle.
Black into White in Nineteenth Century Spanish America:
Afro-American Assimilation in Argentina and Costa Rica. Essay
article from the Journal of Comparative Studies by Lowell
Gudmundson (May 1984)
Afro Argentineans Looks like a labour of love site, includes
much that is useful as a starter. Interesting images but
unfortunately not always attributed. Some valuable links at the
Spanish as well as English
Afroargentinos / Afroargentines Informative pamphlet
produced by Univ of Tennessee to accompany the showing of the
film about the Black community in Argentina and it's history §
Afroargentinos / Afroargentines Study guide prepared by
Michael A. Birenbaum Quintero to accompany the showing of the
film about the Black community in Argentina and it's history.
Director(s): Jorge Fortes, Diego Ceballo Released: 2004
in Argentina: Disappearing Acts
By Hisham Aidi for the Global African community, 2002. Looks at
the enigma of what happened to (a once sizeable) Black African
The Negros in the Army (Los negros en el ejercito) (the
Blacks in the army) Review article (in English) that gives an
overview into the position of African Argentines in the 19th
century, and looks at the current bibliography.
in Buenos Aires no Hay'—there are no blacks in Buenos Aires.
Essay by by Asa G. Hilliard III Ed.D and Luisa Martin on "The
Education of African People". Contains a section based on the
work of George Reid Andrews, The Afro-Argentines of Buenos
In Buenos Aires, Researchers Exhume Long-Unclaimed African Roots
Article examining the "disappearance" of Afro Argentines and
recent efforts to seek out the descendants. By Monte Reel,
Washington Post, 2005
Presencia Negro Africana en la Argentina Pasado y Permanencia
(The Black presence in Argentina, Past & Present) Illustrated
article by Miriam Victoria Gomes, 1970
Negritud y racismo : El genocidio de la población negra de
Argentina (Colour and racism: the genocide of the Argentine
Black population) by Emilio J. Corbière, 2002. Useful historical
article. Use google translator.
El negro en una
sociedad pretendidamente blanca (Blacks in a supposedly
white society) by Lucía Dominga Molina. Polemic article from
Latin American Information Service.
Un censo para saber más de la comunidad negra en Argentina
(A census to know more about
the black community in Argentina) 2002 Newspaper article from
7. General Sites
on Argentine History
Academic Resources Index for Argentina: Excellent guide to
key areas research. Including a list of all University sites.
A Brief History of 19th Century Argentina A student history
for starters §
Argentina: Rocky Road to Modernity For a brief introductory
timeline history from PBS. Published as background to their
The Empty ATM programme on the 2002 collapse
en la historia (Argentines in history) Photos and links to
sites about key Argentines from Belgrano to Maradonna. Basic.
Can be slow to load in northern hemisphere. Be patient.
Historiador Articles on Argentine history and history in
general. Stylish magazine format Very thorough. Spanish language
pages can be google translated. Can be slow to load in northern
hemisphere. Be patient.
El Sur del Sur: The
Southernmost South An award winning site produced by Farber,
a Bs As media company, this gives a general overview of history,
culture and aspects of life in the southern cone in Argentina.
Not academically of the highest quality but useful for facts and
summary outlines.The site is bilingual: click on a flag to
select your preferred language
argentinos Get to know the local museums!! Well presented,
visually interesting, the site tells you about local places to
visit, activities being organised. There are also links to
Historia del País
An encyclopaedic site: mainly narrative but easy to use and
many images. Good for general information. Excellent reference
site with many sections (however the site availability is
erratic, sometimes it is unobtainable if it is used too much
.....) Currently being revamped - not any easier to use though!
Documents for the history of Argentina A selection of
documents on aspects of Argentina´s history and society. Largely
limited to the last 20 years. From the World History Archive
Argentine Sourcebook By T Edsell. A useful site with many
items of everyday social history interest. §
Fotos Antiguas Photos of old Buenos Aires. Good selection
(and many more categories by using the index on the left hand
side) Commentary in Spanish.
from Historia del
País. You need to click on fotografias on the strap line
then pick a decade.
Presidential Messages Collection of presidential messages
from the 19th through 20th century.
For current developments to the national history themes:
Argentina news excellent resource for current news items
(in English) on Argentina
Newsroom Texas Univ site for links to the recent news
themes on Latin America in general
other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:
Immigration into Argentina
The Military and aftermath