the end of the reich: links to the collapse of hitlers germany   

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   This 1945 file photo shows August Schreitmueller's sandstone sculpture "The Goodness" from the Rathausturm (Townhall Tower) overlooking the destroyed city of Dresden. Click for full image. This file was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the Deutsche Fotothek of the Saxon State Library / State and University Library Dresden (SLUB) as part of a cooperation project. The Deutsche Fotothek guarantees an authentic representation only by using copies of the original images as provided by the Digital Image Archive. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!

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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
1. Internal Resistance to the Nazi Regime 
Communist |Youth | Kreisau Circle |Church | '44 Bomb Plot
2. The Home Front
3. The Impact of Bombing
Philosophy & Analysis of Policy
The Key Raids | Witness account
4. Death of Hitler
The Nuremberg Trials
Nazi escapes after the war
5. The Collapse of the Reich
Other core casahistoria Third Reich pages:
  Collapse of Weimar & Hitler's Rise 
  Hitler Home & Structure of the Hitler State
Background | Ideas | The Nazi State: Leadership & Party | Control, Propaganda & Art |Economics
  Living in the Nazi State:
Social Policy (KDF |Youth |Education )
Persecution (Antisocials |Jewish attacks, 
   1933-39|Final solution) 
  Women & Family in Nazi Germany
Role of Women | Women & Art | Eugenics & sterilisation | Women & Concentration Camps | Women & War

  Related casahistoria sites:
Single Party States · Ideologies of left & right ·
Women in Totalitarian States ·

   Site Map - Single Party States microsite 



casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:




1. Internal Resistance to the Nazi Regime  
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Youth Resisters

  • Memories of the White Rose by G Wittenstein. Well detailed account including documentary evidence of the student resistance group.
  • Sophie Scholl BBC audio report (about 10mins). Sophie Scholl was the only female member of the White Rose group. She and her brother Hans had been caught distributing anti-war leaflets at the university in Munich. Lisa Appignanesi talks about Sophie's life.
  • "Protest of Youth" - [The White Rose] by Anton Gill [from: Gill, Anton. An Honourable Defeat 1994.  pp. 183-195]
Hitler Youth & Opposition to the Regime see the casahistoria Living in Nazi Germany site.

Kreisau Circle

The Church

1944 Bomb Plot


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2. The Home Front & War  
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Hitler's Germany Go to the casahistoria Hitler home site for sections on the impact of war on Propaganda & Art; Economics. 
Living in the Nazi State Go to the casahistoria page for relevant sections on the impact of war on Social Policy (KDF ; Youth ; Education) & Persecution
Women & War Go to the casahistoria site.


  • Home Front Germany In WWII despite unclear (& uncredited) provenance this is a generally historically accurate and clearly referenced overview article  §
  • Germany: All Quiet on the Home Front Article from Time magazine describing wartime Germany in 1941. Good contemporary item (from then neutral US magazine). §
  • The celluloid war – The Home Front Film  Good Google Preview extract from the book “Nazi cinema as enchantment: the politics of entertainment in the Third Reich” by Mary-Elizabeth O'Brien
  • German wartime advertising: Examples from 1944. This page includes ads from a special issue of a leading German weekly magazine (Illustrierte Zeitung Leipzig). In each case, there is reference to Nazi war goals. Calvin Propaganda Archive.



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3. The Allied Bombing Offensive

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Philosophy & Analysis of Policy
  • Strategic bombing Basic outline of the concept from Spartacus Educational
  • Britain at War: Bomber Command's strategic bombing of Germany 2008 Andrew Roberts article which examines the campaign and current interpretations of it. Includes footage of Harris, head of Bomber Command and most associated with the policy.
  • Arthur 'Bomber' Harris Concise but clear BBC bio of the leader of RAF Bomber Command (earning him the nickname 'Bomber Harris') in World War Two,. His implementation of the policy of 'saturation' or 'area' bombing of German cities has made him a hugely controversial figure.
  • British Bombing Strategy in World War Two Detlef Siebert of the BBC History unit examines the morality of the strategy ina useful overview and analysis
  • The revenger’s tragedy Leo McKinstry argues that although the British government has long denied that wartime air raids on German cities were intended to kill as many civilians as possible. In fact, the raids, led by Arthur Harris, were motivated largely by a desire to hit back and destroy indiscriminately. 2009 New Statesman article.
  • Effectiveness of Allied Bombing in Europe Concise and valid article by Ralph Zuljan from
  • The Long Arm of the US Strategic Bombing Survey Rebecca Grant examines the 1945 US report (click here for a short version of the  report) into strategic bombing that has influenced air policy for 60 years. See also
  • Total and Marginal Returns to Strategic Bombing: Germany, 1939-1945 (Research?) Essay by Jurgen Brauer, Augusta State Univ, on key aspects the Bomber offensive.
  • Bombing Vindicated Online 1944 book by J Spaight Principal Assistant Secretary of the UK Air Ministry justifying the bombing Offensive. Gives long detailed historic justification and concludes that bomber is the saviour, not destroyer of civilisation
  • The Lethal Legacy of World War II By David Crossland, Spiegel Online. Germany remains contaminated with unexploded bombs that are becoming increasingly unstable with age, warns one of the country's most experienced bomb defusers. He has just retired after a perilous career spent tackling the deadly legacy of World War II.


The Key Raids






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4. The Death of Hitler

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  • Hitler's Last Will  In Hitler's last will, written a day before his death, he planned the future for his body and possessions 
  • Hitler's Political Statement  In his political statement, written a day before his suicide, Hitler blamed Jews for WWII and expelled several top Nazi officials
  • Last Days of a Despot  Review of accounts of Hitler's last days by Richard Breitman professor of history at American University
  • Location of Hitler's Bunker in Berlin This site hosts a map with a large red dot at the approximate location of Hitler's bunker. Also, there is a link to a picture of the bunker's remains in 1995.
  • Death of Hitler´s Secretary, Feb 2002. CNN report. Traudl Junge, the woman who was by Adolf Hitler's side throughout his wartime leadership and was privy to his last days has died.
  • Articles relating to the movie "Downfall": 
    • 'Human' Hitler disturbs Germans BBC Report on German response to new German depiction of Hitler's end in The Downfall
    • At Home with the Führer Very good review article from the UK Independent newspaper. Anthony Quinn
    • Downfall: The story of a Nazi boy hero The film chronicling Hitler's final days reminded Germany of the 12-year-old awarded the Iron Cross by the Führer. Sixty years on, that boy now tells his story in this article - Alfred Czech has no regrets about his part in the war. Tony Paterson reports in    an intriguing article which also casts light on the other "German" issue of the moment: the position of the Germans left in eastern Europe at the end of the war.....
The Nuremberg Trials  Nazi escapes after the war
  • Why the Nazis felt at home in Argentina London Guardian article based on Review of recent Goni book on Nazi's in Argentina
  • Death on the Nile - A Nazi War Criminal's Last Years in Cairo By Markus Deggerich, Amira El Ahl and Jörg Schmitt, Spiegel online. Aribert Heim, a former concentration camp doctor, apparently received support from his family in Germany as he hid for decades in Egypt. His family allegedly visited him without attracting the attention of authorities and kept mum about his death for 16 years. 
See the casahistoria links to Peron and the Nazi's in South America


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5. The Collapse of the Reich

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  • Defeat and Chaos Lecture by Prof Rempel
  • Hitler's Volkssturm: the Nazi Militia and the Fall of Germany, 1944-1945 Worthwhile concise 2004 review article of David K. Yelton book by Larry V. Thompson (Department of History, United States Naval Academy) laying out the key reasons for the creation and failure of the Nazi peoples militia
  • Third Reich in Ruins: Interesting site of photographs show Nazi Berlin, Munich, Nuremberg, and other major German cities before the bombs obliterated the Reich landscape. There are also photos of Hitler's birthplace and childhood home.
  • The Art of Soviet Propaganda: Iconic Red Army Reichstag Photo Faked  A Soviet soldier heroically waves the red flag (shown alongside), the hammer and sickle billow above the Reichstag. Yevgeny Khaldei photographed one of the iconic images of the 20th century. But the legendary image was manipulated to conceal the fact that the Soviet soldiers on the roof had been looting. 2008 Spiegel article shows how it was not only the Nazi’s who faked for propaganda purposes…
  • Hitler's Influence Was Fatal In a SPIEGEL interview, the best-selling British historian Ian Kershaw talks about the last days of the Third Reich, why the Germans persevered when it was clear that all was lost and the devastating consequences of the failed July 20, 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler.


Witness accounts:
  • Living Through the Götterdämmerung of the Third Reich Ursula Grosser Dixon writes of her personal experience as a woman in 1943-1945. More stories of her experience are at this site.
  • Witnesses of War Review of the Nicholas Stargardt book which outlines (using examples drawn from the book) the key findings on this history of children and children's experiences in the Second World War. By Lisa Pine
  • A Woman in Berlin Excellent review of the 1945 (anonymous) diary by Linda Grant who played a role in publicising the mass rapes of Croatian and Bosnian women by Serb militias in the 1990's. The review gives many examples from the book of the dehumanising process of the initial Red Army occupation as well as placing the effect on Berlin's women in the context of modern war. Finally it looks at the question of the evidence - how trustworthy is it (the familiar question to students .......) and comes up with an uneasy parallel.
  • Memories Project of witness accounts of World War II. This worthwhile Project includes the recalled stories of those who were children then from all over Europe during the war. Brief and personal (and available in several languages) they offer a unique insight into the time, but remember the possible limitations of memoirs written long after an event.
  • From the Hamburg Seniorennet, memories of Hamburg citizens today of the Nazi period (all translated into English):

Divided Germany Go to this casahistoria site for links to Germany 1945-49, from defeat to the Berlin Airlift.


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the casahistoria Hitler's Germany core sites:
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  Hitler's Rise to Power & Collapse of Weimar
  Hitler Home Page & Structure of the Hitler State
  Living in the Nazi State
  Women & Family in Nazi Germany   
  The End of Nazi Germany  

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