francos spain: links to franco (francisco franco bahamonde) and the spain he ruled   

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1. Franco
2. Domestic Policy
Economics | The Church
3. Women in the Franco Era
4. Repression & Control
Repression | Forced Labour | Disappeared | Racial persecution | Censorship & cultural control | Resistance
5. Foreign Policy
Germany/World War 2 | The Peróns |
Post-war US/NATO & Europe
6. Analysis
7. After Franco - transition & coming to terms
Transition | Terrorism & Coups |
Remembering, reconciliation & removing the Franco remnants
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other related casahistoria pages:

 Spanish Civil War 

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1. Franco 
  
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Spanish Civil War For extensive links go to the casahistoria civil war site

Biographies
Ideas




For comparisons with other single party ideologies, go to casahistoria Ideologies of left & right page





 

  

 

 




2. Domestic Policy 
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General
Key Domestic Documents: Economics The Church








  







3. Women in the Franco Era


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  • Spanish woman's history in the 20th century Excellent overview from the 19th century background to the post Franco era. Part of the European Comenius project this is well set out with brief narrative, illustrations and chronolgies. Good place to start.
  • The Opinions of Spanish Women Concerning the Dictatorship of Francisco Franco Useful concise research piece which examines the question of how do women, adults when Franco ruled, view Franco as a person and political leader and issues arising out of this. Research base is limited but still makes for interesting and quick reading. Conclusion: older women continue to perceive Franco positively nearly 30 years after the end of his dictatorship especially if they were better able to support their families during his regime, and if they are well educated.
  • True Catholic Womanhood: Gender Ideology in Franco's Spain review of the book by Aurora G. Morcillo but it does provide an overview of the key issues facing women during the Franco era.
  • Fascist Women Speak  Useful item with pictures on the Sección Femenina - "Women Who Combined Religious Zeal and Social Justice". From the International Museum of Women.
  • Dulce Chacón: The Sleeping Voice Review by Elizabeth Nash of the book that tells of the women who lost the war: female prisoners who suffered atrocities of Spain's most miserable epoch, and were forced to remain silent.
  •  La mujer en el franquismo - women & Francoism. Useful concise site looks at the key elements and includes a chronology of main events impacting on attitudes to women. See also:
  • La educación de la mujer bajo el franquismo which contains a selection of texts from theeducation of women. All can be google translated easily.
  • La Mujer Durante El Franquismo - women during the Franco era. Well sourced item which google translates easily looking at the subjection of women into a patriarchical society after 1939. Sections on women and the press as well as the family, at work, education. Chronology.
  • La mujer en el franquismo Women and Francoism. Simple (educational?) slideshow images and brief descriptions. You will need to sign on to slideshare but this is free and very simple.
  • Mujer y Dictadura Franquista - women and the franco dictatorship. Academic article by Manuel Ortiz Heras, (Univ of Castilla La Mancha). As a pdf this will not google translate easily if it is needed in english.
  • La mujer Bajo el franquismo - Women under Franco. Long item (book?) on women during the Franco Era from the Univ Jaume I de Castello. Well divided into sections to illustrate impact on aspects of life such as education, work, family, church, prostitution and abortion. As a pdf this will not google translate easily if it is needed in English.



Women in Totalitarian Societies Go to this casahistoria site for extensive links to the role of women in Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, Stalin's Russia and Mao's China.








  





4. Repression & Control 

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Political Repression Forced Labour
  • Prison Labor in Franco’s Spain (go to page 7 of the pdf) By Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz professor emeritus of history at NYU. Born in Madrid in 1926, he was arrested in 1947 for student activism in the University of Madrid and sentenced to seven years hard labour in the Cuelgamuros prison camp. He was one of thousands of Republican political prisoners forced to work on the construction of the Valley of the Fallen, destined to be Franco’s tomb.  §
  • Forced Labour in Franco's Spain: Workforce Supply, Profits and Productivity Complex, academic article analyses the forced labour system created in Spain during the Civil War and maintained during the Francoist dictatorship. By Fernando Mendiola Gonzalo, Universidad Pública de Navarra.
  • Germans helped Franco run civil war death camps Looks at question of whether Germans helped organise extermination camps in Spain during the civil war. Independent article by Elizabeth Nash

The "Disappeared" of Franco Racial persecution Censorship & cultural control
Resistance

 

 






  



   

5. Foreign Policy

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Nazi Germany/World War 2 The Peróns
See also the casahistoria site: Perόn


Post war relations with NATO/US/Europe

 

  • Los europeos contra el franquismo Discusses the general opposition, mostly from the European community, that the Franco regime faced in 1975 after five prisoners sentenced with the death penalty were executed.
  • El franquismo contra los europeos Discusses and analyses the antagonistic attitude that Franco’s administration adopted against the governments that opposed it.
  • Gen Franco wanted to declare war on Portugal 2008 Daily Telegraph article revealing that Spain was ready to declare war on neighbouring Portugal to stem the perceived threat of communism during the final months of General Francisco Franco's dictatorship.




 




  






6. Analysis 

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7. After Franco - transition & coming to terms 

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Transition Terrorism & Coups
Remembering, reconciliation and removing the Franco remnants
This has become a key issue in recent years. These link to articles on the start of the current process:  
  • International justice begins at home (2003) Looks at the uneasy question of why Spain's lawyers are so prominent in pursuing Latin American generals but less keen to pursue issues arising out of the Franco period. Carlos Alberto Montaner
    Miami Herald.
  • Spain: Investigating the Crimes of Franco Dictatorship  The webpage presents an article on Judge Baltazar Garzon, his recent protests against the atrocities committed during Franco’s government, and his investigative attempts to unearth the truth of various assassinations that took place during Franco’s dictatorship.
  • Judge opens inquiry into Spain's 'red terror' victims 2008 Guardian article on how Baltasar Garzón, judge who chased up many latin American generals, has asked Spain's authorities for a list of those killed on the orders of the tribunals set up by the leftwing Republican authorities in Madrid during the three-year civil war that ended in 1939.
Veteran sites
  • Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory Extensive Republican site with maps of graves as well as articles on the repression under Franco
  • La Memoria de los nuestros blog site to remember the (nationalist) atrocities of the war. (The web site can be the subject of attacks by nationalists). Clic for the archive copy of the original site which has links to further detail. Most are still available on the Waybck Archive.
  • The War and Exile Association A Republican veterans website. Obits, activities, articles.
  • Memoria historica A rarity - a website of the right to remember the war. Unfortunately, its lavish design (Java based pages) mean it cannot be google translated - perhaps this is also a defence against web attacks?







  



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