argentina: links to the history of argentina from perón to the military & its aftermath   

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1. Background to the Military Period
Perón to Perón |
2. Radical & revolutionary movements
3. The Military
The Military Junta | The church & the Junta | 1978 World Cup & the Junta |
4. USA & the Junta
5. The Dirty War
Process | Disappeared |
6. After the dictatorship - the Generals
7. After the dictatorship - 1983-2001 overview
Collapse of 2001/2
8. General sites & links to Argentine history 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other core casahistoria Argentina pages:
 
   Independence & Confederation
  The Republic before Perón
   Immigration into Argentina
  Perόn's Argentina
  Malvinas/Falklands   
 
 
 
 
  Related casahistoria sites
 
Latin American History
· Catholic Missions ·
US & Latin America ·
The South American Military Regimes ·
 
 

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1. Background to el Proceso, (Military "Process of  National Reorganization") 
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See this casahistoria site for further background:
 
South American Military Regimes For details of the other military dictatorships in latin America at this time visit this casahistoria site.

 

Perón to Perón
 
Perón's Argentina For details of the earlier Perón period (and Perón in exile) visit this casahistoria site.
The return of Perón

 

 


 

  

 

 



2. Radical & Revolutionary Movements 

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"Che" Ernesto Guevara casahistoria links to the life of the Argentine revolutionary

Monteneros 1973 Magazine cover of ERP's Estrella Roja, red Star. Click for larger image. ERP - Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo (People's Revolutionary Army)  FAP - Fuerzas Armadas Peronistas  (Peronist Armed Forces)  FAR Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias (Revolutionary Armed Forces)
  • FAR Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias. Q & A article from the 1971 Edition of América Latina en Armas, Ediciones M.A., Buenos Aires

 




  







3. The Military


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  • The military dictatorship in Argentina Introduction to the key elements of the dictatorship from the Argentine Ministry of Education
  • Argentina's Military By Donald J.Mabry in the HTS. Sound account of the emergence of the army in 20th century politics.
  • General Videla, 1976-81 La Dictadura Militar (1976-1983) Basic account from Historia del País
  • Timeline of the 1976-83 Argentine Military Dictatorship Set out with a page to a year and compiled by Jeremy Peterson, with information taken from Buenos Aires Herald articles and other sources.
  • Escarmientos/Lessons Apogee & decay of the Terrorist state. Article by Horacio Verbitsky, on military intervention in Argentine politics.
  • Comunicado nº 1  Desde Marzo del 76 será la forma en que la Junta de comandantes generales habría de comunicarse con el pueblo argentino. Junta pronouncement of seizure to Argentine population. For further recordings from the period see this same page from Argentina's El Historiador
  • El Golpe de '76 Film of the 1976 coup by Argentina's newspaper Clarin. Good selection of oral accounts but not for those with epilepsy! Lush, rich media production (so unfortunately cannot be google translated & needs good broadband for best effect)
  • 30 ańos - a supplement in the Buenos Aires Pagina 12. Very thorough, it is a real gem to students, with articles, personal experiences, poems and photos as well as a detailed chronology. In castellano, but remember it can be googled.
  • 30 años de la dictadura argentina Excellent photo gallery from Spain's El Pais. Unfortunately, more detail could be provided about each image.
  • Civil-Military Relations This pdf sets out structured reading and study outlines for examining the military in Latin America. Worth looking at by students of the period. by Prof. Roger Petersen, MIT §
  • Gallery of black and white photos of the Dictatorship Sharp, powerful images by Alejandro Reynoso & Pablo Cerolini in Clarin newspaper. From 1969 Cordoba origins to the collapse & trials of the junta (1985. Unfortunately this is a Flash site, so if you are linguistically challenged by the Spanish you will be unable to Google the photo descriptions.
  • Tracing the emergence of corporal punishment in a modern society - The Argentine case, 1969- 1979 Dificult PhD Thesis article which provides a historical analysis of Argentina throughout the years 1969 to 1979 and examines how the state developed a terror apparatus between 1976 and 1979 to eliminate al1 forms of subversion. By Michael V. Agostinis
Junta leaders
The Church and the Junta
  • La Argentina Católica y Militar Detailed, article, especially concerning the reaction to international disquiet, drawing attention to the connections between the catholic church and the military by Horacio Verbitsky (in Pagina 12).
  • Documents reveal nuncio's cautious human rights stance In 1977, Archbishop Pio Laghi, papal nuncio to Argentina, told U.S. government officials, "There was guilt in the leaders of the country; they knew they have committed evil in human rights and do not need to be told of their guilt by visitors." National Catholic Reporter article.
  • "Role of Vatican in Argentina's Dirty War," Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo demanded that the Italian government prosecute Papal envoy Pio Laghi for his role on the dirty war in Argentina. Here is an article, written by journalist Uki Goni on the matter, in 1995.
The Junta and the 1978 World Cup
  • Argentina's bittersweet win LA Times article looks at how the Argentine World Cup soccer victory was tainted by the junta that used it to increase its hold.
  • Videla giving the thumbs-up to the Argentina captain, Daniel Passarella. Futbol y dictadura not the best presented page (it does say it a still a works in progress...), but a series of items (drawn from several sources including La Nacion) on football and the military regime. For a google translation you will need to take an item at a time.
  • Un repaso que 30 años más tarde todavía deja lugar a la sorpresa (And 30 years later it still has the ability to surprise) Item from Argentina's Pagina 12, drawing some points out of the dictatorship and the 1978 World Cup.
  • Repression, Expression & Depression: Football in Argentina, 1978-2002. From the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, through the “Maradona years” in the 1980s and 1990s, through to the 2002 World Cup in Japan/Korea.  It argues the three periods are respectively represented by the words repression, expression and depression. Full final bibliography. (This is a Word doc and will need to be downloaded)
  • All's fair in dirty war game Gary Sutherland article from The Scotsman looks at the role of Videla and the military behind the scenes during the 1978 World Cup in Argentina.



  






4. US and the Junta

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South American Military Regimes For further details of Operation Condor and US involvement with the military regimes of Latin America in general, go to this casahistoria site. 

 

 



  



   

5. The Dirty War 

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Disappearances: Process Disappearances: Victims
  • The Vanished Gallery A site dedicated and about the disappeared of the military dictatorship, 1976-1983. A very detailed and comprehensive site.
  • The Mothers outside the infamous Mechanics Institute in 2007 when it became the Museum of Memories Azucena Villaflor La madre de las madres. Bio of Villaflor (by Argentina's newspaper Clarin), one of the founders of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. In 1977 Azucena Villaflor was taken by armed force from her home and is reported to have been detained in the concentration camp of the Navy Mechanics School (ESMA). In 2005, the body of Villaflor, together with those of two other Mothers, was identified in July 2005 by the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team. The bodies showed fractures consistent with a fall and impact against a solid surface, which confirmed the hypothesis that the prisoners had been taken in one of the many "death flights"  in which prisoners were drugged, stripped naked and flung out of aircraft flying over the ocean. Accompanied by oral accounts. Lush, rich media production (so unfortunately cannot be google translated & needs good broadband for best effect).
  • Information on Human Rights in Argentina Equipo Nizkor site on the disappeared In English and Spanish.
  • Argentina's missing babies Useful BBC article from 1999 by Oana Lungescu in Argentina. see also the 1998 BBC article The Living Disappeared by Lucy Ash
  • Two touching articles from Pagina 12 describing how the mothers of the Plaza de Mayo have helped fins the identity of disappeared mothers for their then adopted children:
  • Fue un proceso de años (It was a process of years)
  • Es una historia en común (A history in common)
  • Yo creo que quería encontrar la verdad (I believe that I wanted to find the truth) Story by Alejandra Dandan in Pagina 12 of the son of a couple of “desaparecidos”, who recovered his identity with the help of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.
  • Rodolfo Walsh by Federico Hausvirth. Biography of one of the best known left wing militants, who was murdered in 1977 during the dictatorship. Includes his open letter to the military (in which he wrote about what was happening at the time including the dead bodies found in the River Plate), which he tried to publish on the first anniversary of the military coup. Newspapers refused to publish it. The next day he was kidnapped and then killed.  § See also Walsh Rodolfo from El Historiador site




  



   

6. After the dictatorship - the Generals

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Malvinas/Falklands A separate casahistoria site with extensive links to the war that helped bring about the collapse of the Junta.

Confessions of torturers
  • Alice y Léonie Story of how a Mother Superior in Argentina of French nuns tried to search for two nuns who disappeared during the dictatorship after working with the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. Lush, rich media production (so unfortunately cannot be google translated & needs good broadband for best effect). by Argentina's newspaper Clarin
  • 'I don't try to justify myself' Adolfo Scilingo, a former Argentinian naval officer who threw 30 prisoners to their deaths from planes was jailed for 640 years in April 2005. Here is his chilling confession. April, 2005 The Guardian
  • Confessions of torturers:  Reflections from Argentina Beginning in 1994, Argentine torturers came forward to recount their roles during the infamous Dirty War (1976-83) responsible for the death and disappearance of an estimated 30,000 individuals. All of those who confessed did so voluntarily and under an amnesty provision that prohibited prosecution. A very useful set of confessions - but remember to read the introductory sections placing these in context........ §
The Generals and today
  • Dictatorship and Transition in the Southern Cone Overview of the post Junta period by Melanie Laputka. designed as a Teaching resources this is a useful read and has a full bibliography (many of the links appear on this page...)
  • Human Rights Watch - Argentina For recent updates on the legal moves to bring the military regime perpetrators to justice go to this page. Very useful links to current articles from newspapers world wide
  • A study by artist Daniel Acosta of the Ford Falcon, an Argentine-made car that has become a symbol of the repression since it was these vehicles, with darkened windows and licence plates removed, that were used to abduct victims in the middle of the night. Displayed in Recoleta, Bs As.Dictatorship and Transition in the Southern Cone Overview of the post Junta period by Melanie Laputka. designed as a Teaching resources this is a useful read and has a full bibliography (many of the links appear on this page...)
  • Argentine dirty war generals get life sentence Radio Netherlands 2008 item by Lula Ahrens: conviction of former governor and army general Antonio Bussi & Luciano Menendez. Both convicted of kidnapping, torturing and murdering a senator on the day of the coup in 1976.
  • Will Argentina's junta privileges come to an end? Radio Netherlands 2008 item by Pablo Gomez describing the luxurious conditions the arrested generals might have to give up a result of a new effort by the Argentinian president Christina de Kirchner. Many of those convicts are being held in military units that can be best circumscribed as luxury estates.
  • 22 años contra la impunidad. 22 years opposing immunity. Series of brief but valuable essays by key Argentine writers & journalists, one for each year outlining the successes, and setbacks in bringing the perpetrators of the dictatorship to some form of justice. Some examples: '92 Nazi's in Argentina; '94 Menem & Amnesty; 2000: Echoes of Pinochet; 2005: the Disappeared; 2007: the life of one of the mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. A note of a caution. This is a monster sized pdf which may not always load fully. If you need to translate it you will need to copy & paste into google translator or likewise.
  • Argentina begins healing process by reopening wounds of the Dirty War  As the country begins to account for its violent past, this article examines its catalogue of military crimes. Duncan Campbell and Uki Goni in Buenos Aires, August  2003, The Guardian
  • In Argentina, Justice Delayed: After Pinochet, Investigators Train Their Sites On The Atrocities Committed During The 'Dirty War' 2000 Newsweek article describing the moves to bring the generals to trial By Joshua Hammer 
  • Dirty peace: torture is the latest field to be privatized in Argentina A 1998 New Internationalist report on the continuing aftermath of a dictatorship's `dirty war' and how previous torturers moved into the "security" business.
  • El primer triunfo (The first triumph) Based around a loose review (by Osvaldo Bayer) of a newly released biography of Roca by General Alfredo Manuel Arrillaga the article illustrates some of the underlying remnants of the military dictatorship in modern Argentine society.
  • Argentine death squad cars try for new image. Death squads drove Falcons during the 1976-1983 military regime, forced people into the cars and hauled them off for questioning. 2007 Article looks at attempts to restore a better image of the car by enthusiuasts. With images.
 
Undated photos of former top Argentine military officers
 
(upper row from L) Admiral Eduardo Massera, General Antonio Domingo Bussi, Dictator Jorge Videla and General Guilermo Suarez Mason.

(Bottom row from L), brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo, captain Alfredo Astiz, admiral Jorge Isaac Anaya and Armando Lambruschini.
 
Undated photos of former top Argentine military officers;  

 



  



   

7. After the dictatorship - 1983-2002 overview

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Presidents 1983-2001:  Foreign Policy Collapse of 2001/2
  • The Empty ATM This well produced PBS site is published as thorough teaching aid as background to their programme on the 2002 collapse.
  • What Happened to Argentina? By Mark Weisbrot and Dean Baker January 31, 2002 Centre of Economic and Policy research analysis of the crash - seen at the time.  §
  • Racking Argentina Meltdown and pauperization in what was once Latin America’s wealthiest economy. David Rock analyses the social and political longue durée of the largest sovereign default in history, and worst casualty of doctrinal neoliberalism to date. New Left Review Oct 2002. See also the article as a pdf in Spanish
  • The nightly train service  where cartoneros—cardboard collectors—sorted through the day's trash in search of recyclable material that was exchanged for money. The Ghost trains of the Cartoneros: a photographic essay. When the Argentine economy collapsed in late December 2001, the residents of Suárez, a neighborhood on the outskirts of Buenos Aires, were among the first to lose their jobs. In the following months many, faced with the prospect of starvation, joined piquetero organizations—informal networks dedicated to mutual aid and often destructive political protest. In José León Suárez, residents successfully lobbied the government to begin nightly train service from their community to the more salubrious neighborhoods of downtown Buenos Aires, where cartoneros—cardboard collectors—sort through the day's trash in search of recyclable material that can be exchanged for money. (For an update in 2007 when the train service was finally stopped, see this Pagina 12 article No habrá más tren blanco hacia el norte (There will be no more white train towards the north)
  • Shanty-town solutions & Naomi Klein, of the anti-globalisation movement, debates with Professor Anthony Giddens, advocate of the 'Third Way', on 22 October, at the London School of Economics (LSE)

 




  





8. General sites and links to Argentine history
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  • Lanic Academic Resources Index for Argentina: Excellent guide to key areas research. Including a list of all University sites. 
  • Argentina: Rocky Road to Modernity For a brief introductory timeline history from PBS. Published as background to their The Empty ATM programme on the 2002 collapse
  • Racking Argentina by David Rock. 2002 article traces the country's economic woes by presenting a very useful background history of the 20th century economics & politics that took Argentina to the meltdown & collapse of 2002.
  • Argentinos en la historia (Argentines in history) Photos and links to sites about key Argentines from Belgrano to Maradonna. Basic. Can be slow to load in northern hemisphere. Be patient.
  • El Historiador Articles on Argentine history and history in general. Stylish magazine format Very thorough. Spanish language pages can be google translated. Can be slow to load in northern hemisphere. Be patient.
  • El Sur del Sur: The Southernmost South An award winning site produced by Farber, a Bs As media company, this gives a general overview of history, culture and aspects of life in the southern cone in Argentina. Not academically of the highest quality but useful for facts and summary outlines.The site is bilingual: click on a flag to select your preferred language   
  • Museos argentinos Get to know the local museums!! Well presented, visually interesting, the site tells you about local places to visit, activities being organised. There are also links to overseas museums. 
  • Historia del País  An encyclopaedic site: mainly narrative but easy to use and many images. Good for general information. Excellent reference site with many sections (however the site availability is erratic, sometimes it is unobtainable if it is used too much .....) Currently being revamped - not any easier to use though!
  • Feminism in Argentina by Marilyn Mercer interesting and committed survey
  • Hand of God Amaranta Wright argues that Argentine nationalistic fervour rests on symbol and myth, which can be impossibly romantic – or eerily macabre: "Argentina is obsessed with the dead bodies of the famous. Evita Peron’s corpse endured a 16-year secret journey across the world in a battle for possession between political forces. The hands of the bodies of Juan Peron and Che Guevara have been mysteriously sawn off." 1996 New Internationalist article.
Documentary Resources





other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:

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   Independence & Confederation
  The Republic before Perón
  Immigration into Argentina
  Perόn's Argentina
  The Military and aftermath
  Malvinas/Falklands  
 
 






  



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