See this casahistoria site for further background:
Perón to Perón
The return of Perón
Argentina For details of the earlier Perón period (and
Perón in exile) visit this casahistoria site.
2. Radical & Revolutionary Movements
Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo (People's Revolutionary Army)
FAP - Fuerzas
Armadas Peronistas (Peronist Armed Forces)
Peronist Armed Forces Concise page of terrorist
incidents with links from the US Department of Homeland Security
funded Global Terrorism
FAP Q & A article from the 1971 Edition of América Latina en
Armas, Ediciones M.A., Buenos Aires
FAR Fuerzas Armadas
Revolucionarias (Revolutionary Armed Forces)
FAR Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias. Q & A article from the
1971 Edition of América Latina en Armas, Ediciones M.A., Buenos
3. The Military
Videla page from
Heroes & killers of the 20th century site. Compact, with axe
to grind, but useful, note format.
Roberto Eduardo Viola interview for Time First personal
interview of Viola to a U.S. publication. Excerpts.
The Church and the Junta
The military dictatorship in Argentina Introduction to the
key elements of the dictatorship from the Argentine Ministry of
Argentina's Military By Donald J.Mabry in the HTS. Sound account
of the emergence of the army in 20th century politics.
Dictadura Militar (1976-1983) Basic account from
Historia del País
of the 1976-83 Argentine Military Dictatorship Set out with a
page to a year and compiled by Jeremy Peterson, with information
taken from Buenos Aires Herald articles and other sources.
Escarmientos/Lessons Apogee & decay of the Terrorist state.
Article by Horacio Verbitsky, on military intervention in Argentine
Comunicado nº 1 Desde Marzo del 76 será la forma en que la
Junta de comandantes generales habría de comunicarse con el pueblo
argentino. Junta pronouncement of seizure to Argentine population.
For further recordings from the period see this same page from
Argentina's El Historiador
El Golpe de '76 Film of the 1976 coup by Argentina's newspaper
Clarin. Good selection of oral accounts but not for those with
epilepsy! Lush, rich media production (so unfortunately cannot be
google translated & needs good broadband for best effect)
30 ańos - a supplement in the Buenos Aires Pagina 12. Very
thorough, it is a real gem to students, with articles, personal
experiences, poems and photos as well as a detailed chronology. In
castellano, but remember it can be googled.
30 años de la dictadura argentina Excellent photo gallery from
Spain's El Pais. Unfortunately, more detail could be provided about
Civil-Military Relations This pdf sets out structured reading
and study outlines for examining the military in Latin America.
Worth looking at by students of the period. by Prof. Roger Petersen,
Gallery of black and white photos of the Dictatorship Sharp,
powerful images by Alejandro Reynoso & Pablo Cerolini in Clarin
newspaper. From 1969 Cordoba origins to the collapse & trials of the
junta (1985. Unfortunately this is a Flash site, so if you are
linguistically challenged by the Spanish you will be unable to
Google the photo descriptions.
Tracing the emergence of corporal punishment in a modern society -
The Argentine case, 1969- 1979 Dificult PhD Thesis article which
provides a historical analysis of Argentina throughout the years
1969 to 1979 and examines how the state developed a terror apparatus
between 1976 and 1979 to eliminate al1 forms of subversion. By
Michael V. Agostinis
The Junta and the 1978
La Argentina Católica y Militar Detailed, article,
especially concerning the reaction to international disquiet,
drawing attention to the connections between the catholic church
and the military by Horacio Verbitsky (in Pagina 12).
Documents reveal nuncio's cautious human rights stance In
1977, Archbishop Pio Laghi, papal nuncio to Argentina, told U.S.
government officials, "There was guilt in the leaders of the
country; they knew they have committed evil in human rights and
do not need to be told of their guilt by visitors." National
Catholic Reporter article.
"Role of Vatican in Argentina's Dirty War," Mothers of the
Plaza de Mayo demanded that the Italian government prosecute
Papal envoy Pio Laghi for his role on the dirty war in
Argentina. Here is an article, written by journalist Uki Goni on
the matter, in 1995.
Argentina's bittersweet win LA Times article looks at how
the Argentine World Cup soccer victory was tainted by the junta
that used it to increase its hold.
dictadura not the best presented page (it does say it a
still a works in progress...), but a series of items (drawn from
several sources including La Nacion) on football and the
military regime. For a google translation you will need to take
an item at a time.
Un repaso que 30 años más tarde todavía deja lugar a la sorpresa
(And 30 years later it still has the ability to surprise) Item
from Argentina's Pagina 12, drawing some points out of the
dictatorship and the 1978 World Cup.
Repression, Expression & Depression: Football in Argentina,
1978-2002. From the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, through the
“Maradona years” in the 1980s and 1990s, through to the 2002
World Cup in Japan/Korea. It argues the three periods are
respectively represented by the words repression, expression and
depression. Full final bibliography. (This is a Word doc and
will need to be downloaded)
All's fair in dirty war game Gary Sutherland article from
The Scotsman looks at the role of Videla and the military behind
the scenes during the 1978 World Cup in Argentina.
4. US and the Junta
American Military Regimes For
further details of Operation Condor and US involvement with
the military regimes of Latin America in general, go to this
5. The Dirty War
The Dirty War 1976-1983 (from
Events Data site)
Argentina: the Dirty War, The Disappeared, the Mothers and the
Grandmothers - An Introduction by Professor Anne J. Barry,
Holyoke Community College. An excellent primer on the period.
Written for educators as a resource in Latin American studies
course. Sections on: the circumstances that led to the military
coup in 1976 and set the stage for the Dirty War; What happened
during the Dirty War; How did the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
come together and evolve as an organization and what did they
do; Who are the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and what did
they do; How has justice been served. §
State Repression and Violence in Argentina Valuable, well
supported 1997 Jason Githens essay which looks at the origins,
doctrine, implementation & repercussions of state terrorism in
Folly: Argentina’s “Dirty War” as an Exercise in Self-Defeating
Public Policy A Master’s Thesis submitted by Eric M. Kendall
to Xavier University History Department, 1997
Issue of Jewish Disappeared Persons and Detainees under the
Military Junta, 1976-1983 Although the focus is on the
practice of Israeli Foreign policy, this has useful sections on
The policy of the Military Junta to Argentina's Jews and the
Timmerman case. By Yitzhak Mualem, lecturer in Israeli politics
and international relations at Bar-Ilan University.
Argentina - Living with Ghosts William McWhirter 1981
article for Time. Very readable. Good on impact of Timmerman
- Mothers of Plaza de Mayo
Slow to load: be patient....
Búsquedas y encuentros (googled English translated as:
Searches & encounters, 30 Years of the Grandmothers of the Plaza
de Mayo) A history from the Argentine Pagina 12 describing
their fight to recover the children kidnapped by the
dictatorship or born in captivity.
Ford Motor charged as accomplice in Argentina’s “dirty war”
Describes how Ford was charged with playing a direct part in the
illegal detention, torture and “disappearances” of its own
workers under the dictatorship that ruled the South American
country from 1976 to 1983. One of the principal vehicles that
they produced was the Ford Falcon, which became infamous as the
car of choice for the so-called ‘task forces” that were used in
rounding up perceived opponents of the military, nearly 30,000
of whom “disappeared” under the dictatorship. 2006 news item by
Bill Van Auken published by left wing World Socialist Web Site
The Falcon Remembered Useful essay by Karen Robert about
Argentina's single most recognisable icon of repression.
NACLA Report on the role of
Vanished Gallery A site dedicated and about the disappeared
of the military dictatorship, 1976-1983. A very detailed and
Azucena Villaflor La madre de las madres. Bio of Villaflor
(by Argentina's newspaper Clarin), one of the founders of the
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. In 1977 Azucena Villaflor was
taken by armed force from her home and is reported to have been
detained in the concentration camp of the Navy Mechanics School
(ESMA). In 2005, the body of Villaflor, together with those of
two other Mothers, was identified in July 2005 by the Argentine
Forensic Anthropology Team. The bodies showed fractures
consistent with a fall and impact against a solid surface, which
confirmed the hypothesis that the prisoners had been taken in
one of the many "death flights" in which prisoners were
drugged, stripped naked and flung out of aircraft flying over
the ocean. Accompanied by oral accounts. Lush, rich media
production (so unfortunately cannot be google translated & needs
good broadband for best effect).
Information on Human Rights in Argentina
site on the disappeared In English and Spanish.
Argentina's missing babies Useful BBC article from 1999 by
Oana Lungescu in Argentina. see also the 1998 BBC article
The Living Disappeared by Lucy Ash
touching articles from Pagina 12 describing how the mothers of
the Plaza de Mayo have helped fins the identity of disappeared
mothers for their then adopted children:
Fue un proceso de años (It was a process of years)
Es una historia en común (A history in common)
Yo creo que quería encontrar la verdad (I believe that I
wanted to find the truth) Story by Alejandra Dandan in Pagina 12
of the son of a couple of “desaparecidos”, who recovered his
identity with the help of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.
Rodolfo Walsh by Federico Hausvirth. Biography of one of the
best known left wing militants, who was murdered in 1977 during
the dictatorship. Includes his open letter to the military (in
which he wrote about what was happening at the time including
the dead bodies found in the River Plate), which he tried to
publish on the first anniversary of the military
coup. Newspapers refused to publish it. The next day he was
kidnapped and then killed. § See also
Walsh Rodolfo from
El Historiador site
6. After the dictatorship -
A separate casahistoria site with extensive links to the war
that helped bring about the collapse of the Junta.
Confessions of torturers
The Generals and today
Alice y Léonie Story of how a Mother Superior in Argentina
of French nuns tried to search for two nuns who disappeared
during the dictatorship after working with the Mothers of the
Plaza de Mayo. Lush, rich media production (so unfortunately
cannot be google translated & needs good broadband for best
effect). by Argentina's newspaper Clarin
'I don't try to justify myself' Adolfo Scilingo, a former
Argentinian naval officer who threw 30 prisoners to their deaths
from planes was jailed for 640 years in April 2005. Here is his
chilling confession. April, 2005
Confessions of torturers: Reflections from Argentina
Beginning in 1994, Argentine torturers came forward to recount
their roles during the infamous Dirty War (1976-83) responsible
for the death and disappearance of an estimated 30,000
individuals. All of those who confessed did so voluntarily and
under an amnesty provision that prohibited prosecution. A very
useful set of confessions - but remember to read the
introductory sections placing these in context........
Dictatorship and Transition in the Southern Cone Overview of
the post Junta period by Melanie Laputka. designed as a Teaching
resources this is a useful read and has a full bibliography
(many of the links appear on this page...)
Rights Watch - Argentina For recent updates on the legal
moves to bring the military regime perpetrators to justice go to
this page. Very useful links to current articles from newspapers
and Transition in the Southern Cone Overview of the post Junta period by
Melanie Laputka. designed as a Teaching resources this is a useful read and
has a full bibliography (many of the links appear on this page...)
Argentine dirty war generals get life sentence Radio
Netherlands 2008 item by Lula Ahrens: conviction of former
governor and army general Antonio Bussi & Luciano Menendez. Both
convicted of kidnapping, torturing and murdering a senator on
the day of the coup in 1976.
Will Argentina's junta privileges come to an end? Radio
Netherlands 2008 item by Pablo Gomez describing the luxurious
conditions the arrested generals might have to give up a result
of a new effort by the Argentinian president Christina de
Kirchner. Many of those convicts are being held in military
units that can be best circumscribed as luxury estates.
22 años contra la impunidad. 22 years opposing immunity.
Series of brief but valuable essays by key Argentine writers &
journalists, one for each year outlining the successes, and
setbacks in bringing the perpetrators of the dictatorship to
some form of justice. Some examples: '92 Nazi's in Argentina;
'94 Menem & Amnesty; 2000: Echoes of Pinochet; 2005: the
Disappeared; 2007: the life of one of the mothers of the Plaza
de Mayo. A note of a caution. This is a monster sized pdf which
may not always load fully. If you need to translate it you will
need to copy & paste into google translator or likewise.
Argentina begins healing process by reopening wounds of the
Dirty War As the country begins to account for its
violent past, this article examines its catalogue of military
crimes. Duncan Campbell and Uki Goni in Buenos Aires, August
2003, The Guardian
- In Argentina,
Justice Delayed: After Pinochet, Investigators Train Their
Sites On The Atrocities Committed During The 'Dirty War' 2000
Newsweek article describing the moves to bring the generals to
trial By Joshua Hammer
Dirty peace: torture is the latest field to be privatized in
Argentina A 1998 New Internationalist report on the
continuing aftermath of a dictatorship's `dirty war' and how
previous torturers moved into the "security" business.
El primer triunfo (The first triumph) Based around a loose
review (by Osvaldo Bayer) of a newly released biography of Roca
by General Alfredo Manuel Arrillaga the article illustrates some
of the underlying remnants of the military dictatorship in
modern Argentine society.
Argentine death squad cars try for new image. Death squads
drove Falcons during the 1976-1983 military regime, forced
people into the cars and hauled them off for questioning. 2007
Article looks at attempts to restore a better image of the car
by enthusiuasts. With images.
Undated photos of former top Argentine military
(upper row from L) Admiral Eduardo
Massera, General Antonio Domingo Bussi, Dictator Jorge
Videla and General Guilermo Suarez Mason.
(Bottom row from L),
brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo, captain Alfredo Astiz,
admiral Jorge Isaac Anaya and Armando Lambruschini
the dictatorship - 1983-2002 overview
Collapse of 2001/2
The Empty ATM This well produced PBS site is published as
thorough teaching aid as background to their programme on the
What Happened to Argentina? By Mark Weisbrot and Dean Baker
January 31, 2002 Centre of Economic and Policy research analysis
of the crash - seen at the time. §
- Racking Argentina
Meltdown and pauperization in what was once Latin America’s
wealthiest economy. David Rock analyses the social and political
longue durée of the largest sovereign default in history, and
worst casualty of doctrinal neoliberalism to date. New Left
Review Oct 2002. See also the article as a pdf in
The Ghost trains of the Cartoneros: a photographic essay.
When the Argentine economy collapsed in late December 2001, the
residents of Suárez, a neighborhood on the outskirts of Buenos
Aires, were among the first to lose their jobs. In the following
months many, faced with the prospect of starvation, joined
piquetero organizations—informal networks dedicated to mutual
aid and often destructive political protest.
In José León Suárez, residents successfully lobbied the
government to begin nightly train service from their community
to the more salubrious neighborhoods of downtown Buenos Aires,
where cartoneros—cardboard collectors—sort through the day's
trash in search of recyclable material that can be exchanged for
money. (For an update in 2007 when the train service was finally
stopped, see this Pagina 12 article
No habrá más tren blanco hacia el norte (There will be no
more white train towards the north)
Shanty-town solutions & Naomi Klein, of the
anti-globalisation movement, debates with Professor Anthony
Giddens, advocate of the 'Third Way', on 22 October, at the
London School of Economics (LSE)
8. General sites and links to Argentine history
Lanic Academic Resources Index for Argentina: Excellent
guide to key areas research. Including a list of all University
Argentina: Rocky Road to Modernity For a brief introductory
timeline history from PBS. Published as background to their
The Empty ATM programme on the 2002 collapse
Argentina by David Rock. 2002 article traces the
country's economic woes by presenting a very useful background
history of the 20th century economics & politics that took
Argentina to the meltdown & collapse of 2002.
Argentinos en la historia (Argentines in history) Photos and
links to sites about key Argentines from Belgrano to Maradonna.
Basic. Can be slow to load in northern hemisphere. Be patient.
Historiador Articles on Argentine history and history in
general. Stylish magazine format Very thorough. Spanish language
pages can be google translated. Can be slow to load in northern
hemisphere. Be patient.
El Sur del Sur: The
Southernmost South An award winning site produced by
Farber, a Bs As media company, this gives a general
overview of history, culture and aspects of life in the southern
cone in Argentina. Not academically of the highest quality but
useful for facts and summary outlines.The site is bilingual:
click on a flag to select your preferred language
Get to know the local museums!! Well presented, visually
interesting, the site tells you about local places to visit,
activities being organised. There are also links to overseas
Historia del País
An encyclopaedic site: mainly narrative but easy to use and
many images. Good for general information. Excellent reference
site with many sections (however the site availability is
erratic, sometimes it is unobtainable if it is used too much
.....) Currently being revamped - not any easier to use
Feminism in Argentina by Marilyn Mercer interesting
and committed survey
of God Amaranta Wright argues that Argentine
nationalistic fervour rests on symbol and myth, which can be
impossibly romantic – or eerily macabre: "Argentina is obsessed
with the dead bodies of the famous. Evita Peron’s corpse endured
a 16-year secret journey across the world in a battle for
possession between political forces. The hands of the bodies of
Juan Peron and Che Guevara have been mysteriously sawn off."
1996 New Internationalist article.
other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:
Immigration into Argentina
The Military and aftermath