1920-1929 By Prof. Raffael Scheck, Colby College, Maine.
Weimar Republic excellent cross-referenced site from
Spartacus with pages on. Start here for general narrative
background linked to source material
Treaty of Versailles
Beer Hall Putsch,
League of Nations,
Treaty of Rapallo
Background events before 1919
of World War 1
Impact of the
- The Russian background: A good, concise
introduction to the events of 1917 in Russia (also from the PBS
site) which formed part of the background to the setting up
Weimar Germany. Includes articles by :
2. The Birth of the Republic
Formation of the Republic
ideologies of the left
Communist Manifesto The Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
classic, online in full.
Left-Wing Lingo, Ideologies and History Many links are now
dead but still a good place to see explanations of the
differences between Communism, Socialism, Trotskyism, Democratic
Marxism, and many other "-isms."
Encyclopedia of Marxism An excellent resource - divided into
glossaries of people, places, events, organizations, terms, and
periodicals dealing with Marxism.
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Socialism. Excellent
guide to source materials.
Marxism Made Simple An interesting, visually zippy overview
of Marxism, with a Marxist slant and an inclusion of different
contemporary views of Marxism with modern analogies. However,
the site may bombard you with ads and requests to download other
programmes .... Marxism and capitalism??
The Museum of Communism. An anti communist site set up by
the University of George Mason, Virginia. It does have
interesting entries on:
Rosa Luxemburg Library Left wing, but a useful resource to
the life and work of the revolutionary. Excellent documentary
Luxemburg Detailed biography. No authorship credited but a
largely objective account.
Party States See also this casahistoria page for sites
on the ideologies of left & right.
3. Early Problems,
Treaty of Versailles
4. Emergence of
Political Ideology of the
Right: Ideas behind National Socialism
Nazi Origins Very thorough lecture article by Professor
Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College. Thorough
examination of the early years before Hitler and the impact he
made on the party before 1923. From his series of lectures:
History of Modern Germany
Rise of the Nazis and Communists Clear online lecture notes
by Prof. Raffael Scheck, Colby College, Maine. Includes sections
on: The Communists; The DNVP (German National People's Party);
The NSDAP (German National Socialist Worker's Party). Extracted
from his useful
Germany & Europe 1871-1945
The Twenty-Five Points (1920) Founding points of NSDAP
The Nazi Party The Nazi Party: Admission Requirements
The Rise of Hitler Index Narrative account from History
Place in 24 sections Begin with
Hitler joins the German Workers Party This then links on to
accounts for the early history of the Nazi party and takes you
to 1933 (and beyond if you wish...).
Flowers for the Führer in Landsberg Prison New historical
documents show that Adolf Hitler wanted for nothing during his
short incarceration at Landsberg Prison in 1924. He was able to
hold court and maintain his political contacts -- all with the
consent of the prison management. Spiegel magazine item.
- Germany and Hitler
in the Twenties Lengthy involved article surveying the
1920's by by Frank E. Smitha
Nazi Propaganda: Pre-1933 Material Propaganda was central to
Nazi Germany. This section is a collection of English
translations of Nazi propaganda for the period before 1933, and
is part of an excellent larger site on
propaganda. The goal is to help people understand the great
totalitarian systems of the 20th Century by giving them access
to the primary material. The archive is substantial.
Single Party States
for links to sites on the ideologies of left & right.
Fascism This grid is an excellent place to start. Visually
it might answer all your questions. Produced by
Australian the Duffy Resource Centre. This
is no longer maintained outside an intranet. This copy is the
Wayback copy. Use the list by either clicking through for the
saved page or by copying the url directly into your browser.
Fascism A clear and concise account of the origins and
development of Fascism by Dr C Jazwinski. The original
site is now offline. This is a copy.
Fascism in Europe: Documents and articles Excellent
selection from the
Mosaic Perspectives on western civilisation site
- Trotsky on
Fascism - What It Is and How To Fight It Discover Leo
Trotsky's attitude towards fascism through a pamphlet he wrote
in the 1930's. Read his definition of the movement.
Race and Visualism Interesting look at impact of fascism
(and other influences) on how society has visualised itself. By
William Washabaugh (This
is the 2004 version. Later versions are less applicable here)
5. Weimar 1926-29: The
Stresemann Years & Prosperity
The Good Years of the Weimar Republic Article by Professor
Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College. From his series of
History of Modern Germany
Stresemann A detailed biography of
Stresemann, 1926 Nobel Peace Prize winner. However, beware this
account is the official Nobel site and makes little attempt at a
Stresemann, Gustav Detailed,
good account. This article was written by Rudolf Morsey,
Professor of Modern History at the Postgraduate School for
Administrative Sciences, Speyer, Germany. He is the author of
Die deutsche Zentrumspartei, 1917-1923 (1966).
Stresemann Spartacus biography with documentary support
Paul von Hindenburg This biography from the BBC discusses
Hindenburg, famous Field Marshall who became the Weimar
Republic’s second president from 1925 – 1934; he appointed
Hitler as Chancellor.
1929-1933 & rise of Hitler
The Wall Street Crash
- Fall of the Weimar Republic Chronology of the key stages in
the collapse of the Republic
Collapse of the Republic Article by Professor Gerhard
Rempel, Western New England College. From his series of
History of Modern Germany.
The Führer Myth How Hitler Won Over the German People By Ian
Kershaw. Excellent detailed essay. Divided into sections:
The Story behind Hitler's Rise to Power By Charles Hawley
Clear outline of the steps to power, published by Der Spiegel to
commemorate the 2008 75th anniversary of Adolf Hitler's
attainment of power. Divided into sections:
- From Weimar to Hitler: The Rise and Fall of the first German
Democracy by Dr E.J. Feuchtwanger in New Perspective,1995.
Gives an overview of the Republic set out in clear headings.
- The Weimar Republic and its collapse From Omnipotent
Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War by Ludwig
von Mises (1944). Not an easy read, but interesting given the
provenance. This treatise on Nazism and the total state was
published by Yale University (New Haven, CT) in 1944 and
reprinted by Arlington House (New Rochelle, NY) in 1969. Read
the Entire Text in
(unfortunately, currently only available by
downloading a zip file from the English intro page. Needs Flash
plug-in) Good for
seeing the rapid polarisation of left and right in Weimar
politics. This is a superb site detailing the
voting habits of the Weimar era, including information on
political parties, voting districts, and socio-economic factors.
Move down the page to the start button! Although the information
is complicated, the presentation is
modern, and includes a series of excellent 3D maps. This project
intends to visualize selected details of the voting behavior in
the German Reich between 1924 and 1933. The most
fascinating statistical displays have been made easier for you
by casahistoria. Just click on these:
For extensive links to Hitler's Germany go to the
7. Weimar Art &
Weimar Culture Short introductory piece by Prof. Raffael
Scheck, Colby College, Maine. Extracted from his useful
Germany & Europe 1871-1945
Cultural Life in the Republic Essay with focus on
Architecture and Philosophy. Professor Rempel, Western New
England College. From his series of lectures:
History of Modern Germany
Modernism Web site of the V&A exhibition in London (May-July
'06) the V&A. Very useful site bringing together a mass of
exhibits, drawings and photos it looks at the development of the
movement in the interwar period. The focus is rightly on
developments in central & eastern Europe and index can be
centred on countries individually.
Weimar Cinema – Between Classical Cinema and Avant-Garde.
Very detailed, well linked and illustrated site to all aspects
of Weimar cinema - expressionism, rivalry with Hollywood,
perceptions of films of such as those of Fritz Lang over time.
German Film Institute. This is the English version which is
thorough, however the German site is more detailed still:
Hollywood in Berlin: American Cinema and Weimar Germany The
setting is 1920s Berlin, cultural heart of Europe and the era's
only serious cinematic rival to Hollywood. Thomas Saunders
explores an outstanding example of one of the most important
cultural developments of this century: global Americanization
through the motion picture. (University of California
German Art from Spartacus. Covers entire interwar period.
Der Blaue Reiter: Paintings by artists from the Blue Rider
art movement are found here along with additional biographical
articles. The site is in German but most of the linked
biographies are in English.
Ernst Barlach Link to the Barlach Museum. Excellent site to
the artist and sculptor. In German, but easily navigable for the
Grosz Artist associated with the Dada movement in Berlin
Born 26 July 1893 in Berlin, died 6 July 1959 in Berlin. Click
here for images of his best known works
- Otto Dix
(1891-1969), German Expressionist, was famous for his
unique and grotesque style. Although Hitler's Nazi regime
destroyed many of Otto Dix's works, the majority of his
paintings can still be seen in museums throughout Germany. This
is a guide to the best known
Otto Dix: A biography of Dix is found here along with
excerpts from interviews, critics' judgments, and additional
information. Unfortunately, there are only a few examples of
Dix's work, but overall the site is worth visiting.
Kollwitz Link to the Kollwitz Museum in Cologne for this
powerful expressionist artist of the period. Well set out as an
interactive tour. Also in
German. See also the (English language) site of the private
Kathe Kollwitz - Symbol of Letting Go "Kathe Kollwitz had a
long talk with her son, Peter, when he decided to volunteer in
1914; and she gave him her blessing, and regretted it for the
rest of her life. Jay Winter looks at one aspect of the impact
of World War 1 on the artist.
German Cabaret Concise but good site, looks at cabaret from its
Munich roots to the Berlin Cabaret familiar to many through the
hit musical Cabaret, Bob Fosse's highly atmospheric film, images
of smoke-filled clubs, semi-naked women, and Marlene Dietrich as
femme fatale Lola Lola in The Blue Angel.
Information on German Cabaret and related areas Many links
8. General links to the Weimar period
1919–1939 School site from johndclare.net Looks at the
Weimar/Hitler period in very structured way (but navigation can
be difficult). Many subsidiary links in the format of the current
guided learning UK style textbooks with each section having a
basic outline narrative text, then documents and exercises.
(includes the exercises used by the school - good practice).
Worthwhile as a basic starter for structure
Weimar Republic Basic, but well detailed and linked outline
from the LearningSite.
Brief Weimar Timeline Part of a
college history course, this page contains a very basic timeline
of Weimar Germany, and a short crib-sheet on economic, political
and Nazi problems which continues
The Weimar Republic A detailed and analytical examination of
the Weimar era in seven parts. Navigation is less than easy -
use the link at the bottom of the page to advance. Useful links
within the site to documents. The discussion begins with an
in-depth look at how the Treaty of Versailles treated Germany,
and moves on to consider the constitution (and its apparent
failure), as well as uprisings and culture. The site includes a
The Weimar Republic and the Third Reich A chronology
the casahistoria Hitler's Germany core sites:
Hitler's Rise to Power &
Collapse of Weimar
Hitler Home Page & Structure of the Hitler State
Living in the Nazi State
Women & Family in
The End of the Reich